By : dr. Edward Harahap, Sp.U
Urologist at National Cancer Center Hospital of Dharmais
Is written for Instalasi Deteksi Dini & Onkologi Sosial RS Kanker “Dharmais”
Prostate Cancer is the most common type of cancer in men and second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in men. An estimated 217,730 men diagnosed in the United States in 2010. A malignant (cancerous) tumor that begins in the prostate gland. Some prostate cancers grow very slowly and may not cause problems for years . Prostate cancer is somewhat unusual because most do not spread outside the prostat.
What is the Function of the Prostate?
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located behind the base of the penis, in front of the rectum, and below the bladder. It surrounds the urethra, the tube-like channel that carries urine and semen through the penis. The main function of the prostate is to make seminal fluid, the liquid in semen that protects, supports, and helps transport sperm.
What are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer?
• Race/ethnicity (Black men have highest risk)
• Family history
• Digital rectal examination (DRE)
• Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test
• PSA to screen many men with no symptoms is controversial
What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?
• Frequent urination, or weak or interrupted urine flow
• The urge to urinate frequently during the night
• Pain or burning during urination, or blood in the urine or semen
• If the cancer has spread, symptoms include: pain in the back, weight loss, fatigue
• Symptoms are not specific to prostate cancer, could be caused by an enlarged prostate, a condition called benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), an infection, or other conditions
How is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?
• PSA test
• Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
• Diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy, often with TRUS
• Imaging tests can determine if the cancer has spread
Prostate Cancer Prevention ?
• Prostate cancer is an excellent candidate for chemoprevention with nutrition because of its long latency, high incidence, and strong correlation with specific dietary factors.
• The highest likelihood of chemoprevention of prostate cancer is in the very earliest stages of the disease, that is, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).
• Current evidence supports a chemopreventive approach that incorporates reduction of inflammation (using omega-3 fatty acids and antiinflammatory herbal supplements) and protection against oxidant damage (using antioxidant nutrients and herbs).
• Research into nutritional chemoprevention of prostate cancer is ongoing and highly promising, and it can be applied now with patients in the early stages of prostate cancer.
• Nutritional chemopreventive agents have no negative impact on potency or continence.
• Finasteride prevents prostate cancer
• NO increased risk of high-grade disease
• Minimal sexual side effects
• SELECT Trial may show benefits for Vitamin E and/or selenium, but no definitive evidence yet
• Statins may potentially prevent aggressive prostate cancer
• Studies are ongoing—nothing definitive yet.
• There is little downside to moderate changes in nutritional intake
• Vegetable intense diet
• Decrease meat, fat, and animal product intake
Edited by : Ois
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